Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics en-US info@cajmhe.org (M. Yessirkepov) Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EMERGING ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/22 <p>Scholarly activities are increasingly dependent on a wide variety of online tools and platforms. Processing health information on such platforms may enrich research studies and solve some healthcare issues. Health information analyses and online surveys are frequently conducted to test old hypothesis and generate new ones. These studies require thorough understanding of the subject and skilful use of online platforms, including social media. Social media platforms are increasingly employed for retrieving and disseminating research data. Scholarly activities on Twitter and other globally popular social media are now recommended for research, education, and clinical practice. Aggregated social media information and related altmetric data have emerged as reflections of the immediacy effects of online sharing and commenting and as tools to complement citation analyses. Researchers and research managers may use altmetrics to plan their studies and introduce changes to the education process. Securing uninterrupted access to Internet and available online tools may facilitate quality research and other scholarly activities.</p> Marlen Yessirkepov, Olena Zimba, Armen Yuri Gasparyan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/22 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/23 <p>ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED</p> Edward Barroga Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/23 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 REGISTERING AND REPORTING SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/24 <p>Systematic reviews are considered as the highest rung in the ladder of evidence-based medicine. They are bound by a pre-defined structure and requirement for extensive literature searches, when compared with the more liberal format of narrative reviews. Systematic review protocols should ideally be pre-registered to avoid duplication or redundancy. After defining clear review question(s), thorough literature searches form the basis of systematic reviews. Presentation of results should be qualitative or quantitative (meta-analysis) if the data is homogenous enough to permit pooling across multiple studies. Quality of individual studies by Cochrane risk of bias 2 tool for interventional studies and other suitable scales for observational studies, as well as appropriate assessment of publication bias are recommended. Certainty of outcomes should be assessed by the GRADE profiler. Finally, systematic reviews should conclude with recommendations for future research, based on their findings.</p> Pallavi Patro, Durga Prasanna Misra Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/24 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 VACCINATION WITH MMR MAY REDUCE DISEASE SEVERITY IN COVID-19 PATIENTS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/25 <p>We hypothesise that MMR vaccination is possibly a safe, cheap, effective and readily available method to reduce the severity of COVID-19 disease course in health care workers, elderly patients and other people at risk. The evidence is based on relevant literature.&nbsp; Suggestions for further studies are given.</p> Johannes J. Rasker, Suzanne P. Linn-Rasker Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/25 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF BALNEOTHERAPY WITH POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CENTRAL ASIAN SPAS AND SANATORIUMS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/26 <p>Spa therapy includes all modalities/ treatments based on evidence that are administered in spas or sanatoriums. Balneotherapy, the immersion in mineral water, is the main balneological modality in spa therapy programs. Clinical trials performed in Europe, Turkey, and Israel have shown clinical benefits of spa therapy/ balneotherapy in several diseases mainly pertaining to rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and dermatological diseases as well. However, mechanisms by which balneotherapy may improve the clinical symptoms of patients have been less evaluated/ documented in the literature. Although the literature on mechanisms of action of balneotherapy has still been evolving and accumulating, some evidence from preliminary studies paves the way for generating a hypothesis that balneotherapy has an influence on physiological mechanisms, immune system, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Extrapolation of the evidence-based clinical practice and scientific experience of Europe, Turkey, and Israel to Central Asian spas and sanatoriums is although possible; future studies investigating clinical efficacy, safety profile, and possible mechanisms of action of balneotherapy of regional spas are needed to better understand the role of balneotherapy and whether it has any local differences.</p> Sinan Kardeş, Mine Karagülle Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/26 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 THE PEER REVIEW PROCESS IN ASIA https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/27 <p>Peer reviewers are the custodians of sciences and scientific publishing. Previously regarded as a purely altruistic work, with the advent of Publons and Peer Review Week initiatives, reviewers can now get scholarly credits for their accomplishments. The number of skilled peer reviewers is limited. The sheer volume of published literature in today’s world calls for active involvement of a large corpus of reviewers. Asia has a growing workforce of biomedical researchers and scientific authors who are inadequately exposed to the global research reporting and English writing standards. Several global initiatives are underway to groom the next generation of peer reviewers and credit them for their efforts. These need to be expanded and made more accessible to scholars in Asia. Ultimately, this untapped potential may provide quality services to international peer-reviewed journals and create informed researchers and skilled authors.</p> Sakir Ahmed, Benzeeta Pinto Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/27 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 THE QUEST FOR INDEXING A JOURNAL https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/28 <p>Hearing about the selection of one’s journal by a reputable indexing system pleases every editor. Journals with an international editorial members selected from prolific researchers have a higher chance of being selected by a prestigious indexing system. Geographic distribution of authors’ affiliations is another important factor. Considering a minimum of internationally acceptable editorial standards would also influence the decision of the indexing systems to select a journal—publishing few quality articles is much better than publishing a bunch of poorly designed badly reported ones. The key to success is having a group of dedicated staff with good communication skills.</p> Farrokh Habibzadeh Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/28 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 CORRECTING LANGUAGE MISTAKES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ARTICLES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/29 <p>Scientific authors must write simply and authentically. They should use clear and focused language when drafting qualitative research reports to allow for a deeper understanding of the experiences and concepts extracted. The authors must strive to correctly use subject-verb, matching, and comparing constructions. They must concisely structure the objectives, methods, and discussion. Their manuscript should have a logical flow to avoid rejection due to any ambiguous meaning.</p> Edward Barroga, Glafera Janet Matanguihan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/29 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION IN CENTRAL ASIA https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/30 <p>Social Media Platforms (SMPs) have emerged as the new frontiers for academic engagement, more so during the pandemic. Cultural barriers, close censorship, and language restrictions may limit the participation of Central Asian scholars in the global scientific communication. This article explores the patterns of Social Media (SoMe) use in Central Asia and outlines probable deterrents of academic engagement in the region. Some suggestions are formulated to offer digital and socio-cultural solutions aimed to improve Central Asian scholars’ activities on SoMe platforms and bridge the divide for fruitful academic partnerships.</p> Prithvi Sanjeevkumar Gaur, Latika Gupta Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/30 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/31 <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER</p> Latika Gupta Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/31 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS TO GENERATE A GREAT HYPOTHESIS! https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/32 <p>FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS TO GENERATE A GREAT HYPOTHESIS!</p> Ilke Coskun Benlidayi Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/32 Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0200 FROM TESTABLE HYPOTHESES TO ETHICAL PAPERS AND IMPROVED HEALTH SERVICE https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1 <p>Publishing an informative, useful, and attractive journal has been a difficult task throughout the history of scientific communications. Print publishing has had its own hardships that kept editors and publishers busy with time-consuming technological processes, requiring specific skills and abundant financial investments. With the advent of digital media and Open Access, scholarly activities and knowledge transfer have accelerated and facilitated globally affordable online publishing practices.</p> Marlen Yessirkepov, Armen Yuri Gasparyan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 GENERATING WORKING HYPOTHESES FOR ORIGINAL RESEARCH STUDIES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/2 <p>A hypothesis is a statement of the expected outcome of a research study, generally based on analysis of prior published knowledge, or with reference to the previous work of the investigators. The hypothesis forms the foundation of a research proposal. A study based, and planned, on a sound hypothesis may have a greater likelihood of meaningfully contributing to science. After the generation of a hypothesis, it is equally important to appropriately design and adequately power a study (by ensuring a sufficient sample size) in order to test the hypothesis. Adhering to principles discussed forthwith shall help young researchers to generate and test their own hypotheses, and these are best learnt with experience.</p> Durga Prasanna Misra, Vikas Agarwal Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/2 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 KAWASAKI DISEASE IN KAZAKHSTAN: AN UNMET CLINICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE? https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/3 <p>Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis targeting medium-sized and small arteries. It manifests in young children. If not appropriately treated, KD leads to the development of coronary artery aneurysms inabout 20% of patients. No local evidence-based clinical and epidemiological data on KD are currently available in Kazakhstan. The awareness of KD among physicians is inadequate, resulting in underdiagnosis of the disease in the country. Given the high priority of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Central Asian countries, clinical and epidemiological studies on KD along with measures for early diagnosis and management of the patients with cardiovascular affections are warranted.</p> Dimitri Poddighe, Bakhtiyar Azhken Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/3 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 SOCIAL MEDIA FOR MEDICAL JOURNALS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/4 <p>Social networks are now an integrated part of life in most digitally connected societies. Bringing scientific papers of interest to a defined audience using the appropriate channel might substantially contribute to the impact of a scientific discovery. Various media and metrics have come to the fore in strategizing dissemination of scientific information. This opinion piece offers insights from the social-media experience of digital editors of peer-reviewed journals from non-Anglophone countries.</p> Sakir Ahmed, Latika Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/4 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 COMPARING VITAMIN D STATUS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND NORTHERN EUROPE https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/5 <p>Over the past two decades, the understanding of the roles of vitamin D has expanded to include many nonskeletal effects such as reduced risk of acute respiratory tract infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, neurological diseases, and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The role of vitamin D for optimal health is well known in Western developed countries but less so in Central Asian countries. This narrative review compares the status of vitamin D between Central Asian countries and Northern European countries. The analysis also summarizes the evidence for the beneficial effects of vitamin D and recommendations for Central Asian countries.</p> William B. Grant Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/5 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 PATHOGENESIS OF FIBROMYALGIA IN PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: SCOPING REVIEW FOR HYPOTHESIS GENERATION https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/6 <p>Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) prevalence is much higher in patients with other rheumatic diseases than in the general population. This leads to increase in the perceived disease activity scores and prevents patients from reaching remission. Elucidating the pathogenesis of such “secondary” FM can help alleviate some unmet needs in these diseases.</p> <p>Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for a scoping review for hypothesis generation regarding the genesis of secondary FM.</p> <p>Results: FM has been postulated to be due to cytokine dysfunction, neurogenic neuroinflammation, stress, including social defeat, sleep disturbances, sympathetic overactivity, and small fibre neuropathy. These factors increase in most autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Further the evidence for the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of FM is seems strong. Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction are also associated with FM, but it is difficult to distinguish between cause and effect.</p> <p>Conclusion: FM is the common phenotype arising from the amalgamation of various aetiologies. Recruitment or amplification of the above 6 factors by various rheumatic diseases may thus lead precipitation of secondary FM in susceptible individuals.</p> Sakir Ahmed, Able Lawrence Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/6 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A HYPOTHETICAL ROLE FOR PLAGUE IN THE SELECTION OF MEFV MUTATION CARRIERS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/7 <p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding Pyrin. MEFV mutations are frequent in the Mediterranean region. Increased resistance to an infection endemic to this area could have caused a selective advantage for individuals with MEFV mutations. Recent studies have shown that Pyrin is a part of host defense against microorganisms and it gets activated after sensing Rho GTPase inactivation by bacteria such as Clostridium difficile or Yersinia pestis. However, Yersinia species have another effector molecule, YopM which inhibits Pyrin in addition to RhoA modifiers YopE and YopT. Continuously overactive Pyrin in individuals with MEFV mutations could be a good host defense against Yersinia infections. Y. pestis causes plague, which led to a devastating pandemic in the Mediterranean basin. Thus, plague could be the infection which caused a selective biologic advantage for MEFV mutation carriers in this area.</p> Ezgi Deniz Batu Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/7 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 INNOVATIVE IDEAS IN REGIONAL RESEARCH: A MESSAGE FROM PAKISTANI JOURNAL EDITORS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/8 <p>INNOVATIVE IDEAS IN REGIONAL RESEARCH: A MESSAGE FROM PAKISTANI JOURNAL EDITORS</p> Aamir Raoof Memon, Fatema Jawad Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/8 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 ENHANCING CLEAR EXPRESSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, AND OBJECTIVES THROUGH EFFECTIVE USE OF SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/9 <p>ENHANCING CLEAR EXPRESSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, AND OBJECTIVES THROUGH EFFECTIVE USE OF SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH</p> Edward Barroga Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/9 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 LAUNCHING A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/10 <p>LAUNCHING A SGHOLARLY JOURNAL</p> Ilke Coskun Benlidayi Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/10 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300 AUTHORSHIP MALPRACTICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/11 <p>Although the variety of research malpractices in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is similar to those documented in developed nations, authorship misuse and related issues appear to be more prevalent in the former. This article focuses on some authorship-related topics in LMIC, namely authorship disputes, excessive co-authorship and monetary incentives, authorship issues in student-mentor relationships, and authorship patterns in North-South collaborations. Universities and official bodies in LMIC must supervise the integrity of the whole research process, provide instructions on responsible research and authorship, set up the required postgraduate training programs, foster good role models in authorship, and designate an ombudsperson to advice and respond to complaints of researchers, especially students and junior faculty. Lastly, a recent framework that combines descriptive and normative elements and then uses proper metaphors to achieve an ethical definition of authorship useful in international settings is highlighted.</p> Horacio Rivera Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/11 Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0300