Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics South Kazakhstan Medical Academy en-US Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics 2708-9800 HYPOTHESES AND ETHICS IN THE TIME OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/38 <p>HYPOTHESES AND ETHICS IN THE TIME OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC</p> Marlen Yessirkepov Bekaidar Nurmashev Armen Yuri Gasparyan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 10 13 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.01 OPEN ACCESS, RESEARCH COMMUNITIES, AND A DEFENSE AGAINST PREDATORY JOURNALS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/39 <p>In this opinion article, the author describes his experiences of naming, listing, and analyzing predatory journals. The gold open-access model has led to the creation of many predatory journals that exist only to exploit researchers. Medical research is the most valuable research for humans, so we must guard against the publishing of medical research in predatory journals. Community-based journals that combine a geographical and a disciplinary focus may be seen as a defense against the pathological nature of predatory publishers.</p> Jeffrey Beall Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 14 17 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.02 DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN BIOMEDICAL PUBLICATIONS IN VIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF MEDICAL JOURNAL EDITORS RECOMMENDATIONS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/41 <p>As potential conflicts of interest (COI) are common in biomedical research, handling related issues and managing disclosures is increasingly important. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) revised its guidance on COI in 2019 and introduced the latest version of the COI Disclosure Form in 2021. These documents provide guidance regarding COI policy for ICMJE member and non-member journals. The 2019 revision overviews the main changes in the ICMJE policy. The ICMJE prioritizes appropriate COI disclosures by authors and all others involved in scholarly publishing. Increasing the global awareness of the COI updated policies among all stakeholders is essential for strengthening ethical standing of journals.</p> Takako Kojima Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 18 22 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.03 BIOMEDICAL RESEARCHERS CONFRONTING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/42 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global challenge to be confronted by the biomedical community. This article aimed to explore how knowledgeable and competent researchers may contribute to fighting the pandemic, and to discuss the ethics and impact of this endeavor. Many medical researchers and in particular clinical practitioners are engaged in collecting new evidence and creating new knowledge by undertaking pandemic-related research. This research is frequently unplanned, and subsequently numerous obstacles to starting new but necessary studies must be overcome. To contribute research evidence in hard times represents a highly ethical move. Moreover, these new studies need ethical approvals, financial resources, and institutional frameworks. Another pandemic-related challenge is how to generate expert opinions during the period when solid evidence is missing. Unlike research studies providing necessary scientific evidence, expert opinions do not need ethical approvals or disclosures of competing interests. The apparent contrast of evidence-based versus opinion-based decision-making during the pandemic reconfirms that quality research studies have no alternatives at all times.</p> Srećko Gajović Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 23 28 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.04 INFECTION-ACQUIRED VERSUS VACCINE-INDUCED IMMUNITY AGAINST COVID-19 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/43 <p>The course of COVID-19 depends on a dynamic interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the host's immune system. Although it is an emerging global health issue, little is known about the specificity, safety, and duration of the immunity elicited by the virus. This hypothesis article explores the benefits of infection-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity against COVID-19, suggesting that the latter outweighs the former. Comparative studies are proposed to explain and reveal all aspects of the immune responses. Although vaccine development relies on studies of naturally acquired immune responses, there are still no comparative analyses of the natural and vaccine immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, there are scarce reports on the characteristics of both types of responses. The scientific facts about the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 affecting the immune system are of great importance for proposed comparative analyses. Various immunological methods can be employed to elucidate infection-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2. The safe vaccination of subjects with and without COVID-19 history may disrupt the virus spreading and end the pandemic.</p> Tsvetelina Velikova Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 29 35 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.05 ANALYSIS OF YOUTUBE VIDEOS ON PULMONARY REHABILITATION IN COVID-19 https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/45 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> YouTube is a popular social media platform frequently searched by online users for retrieving health-related information. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have an important place in the COVID-19 treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate COVID-19 pulmonary rehabilitation videos on YouTube.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp; A total of 180 videos tagged with the search terms “COVID-19 pulmonary rehabilitation”, “COVID-19 pulmonary exercise” and “COVID-19 pulmonary physiotherapy” were retrieved. Of these, 63 videos met the study inclusion criteria. The Global Quality Scale (GQS) and the modified DISCERN tool were performed for quality and reliability assessments. Duration of video, upload date, number of views, likes, dislikes, and comments were recorded. Video sources were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the total 63 videos, 22 (34.9%) were classified in the high-quality group, 19 (30.2%) intermediate quality group, and 22 (34.9%) low quality group. The main sources of the high-quality videos were universities and physicians. Others, patients, independent users and health related websites produced high rates of low-quality videos. No significant difference was detected in views, likes, dislikes, and comments per day between the quality groups (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Numbers of high, intermediate and low-quality videos were very close to each other. It is necessary to consider the video sources in order to find videos that contains accurate information. Video parameters other than sources should not be considered as quality indicators.</p> Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol Ahmet Riza Şahin Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 36 42 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.06 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND BEHÇET’S DISEASE https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/47 <p>Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease, mainly affecting populations originating from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Behçet’s Disease (BD) is grouped in polygenic autoinflammatory diseases. It is a systemic vasculitis that affects all types and sizes of blood vessels. The aim of this article is to shed light on similarities and differences between FMF and BD. BD is frequently reported along the ancient Silk Road, extending from the Far East to the Mediterranean basin. Several studies have searched for the association between FMF and BD. FMF is caused by mutations of the MEditerranean FeVer (MEFV) gene while an increased frequency of MEFV mutations is reported in BD patients. Although BD and FMF share some epidemiological and pathophysiological features, there are distinct clinical characteristics of these nosological entities. Mucocutaneous manifestations, especially recurrent oral ulcers, are the most common symptom in BD patients whereas fever accompanied by serosal inflammation is the main clinical presentation in FMF patients.</p> Ummusen Kaya Akca Ezgi Deniz Batu Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 43 50 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.07 SPERMIDINE MAINTAINS TELOMERE LENGTH AND DELAYS AGING https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/48 <p>Spermidine, a natural polyamine, has been noticed for its anti-aging properties. Supplementation of this drug prolongs lifespan and diminishes the incidence of age-related pathology. In the human population, spermidine levels decrease as aging progresses, and a potential link between diminished endogenous spermidine levels and age-related declination has been studied. At the cellular level, autophagy is the prime mode of action of spermidine known to decline with the progress of aging, similarly contributing to the accretion of impaired macromolecules and organelles through aging. Epidemiological statistics support the concept, suggesting that elevated uptake of polyamine delays aging. Here, we overview the effect of autophagy on cellular processes and age-associated diseases, emphasizing the importance of these events to the hallmarks of aging.</p> <p>There are numerous factors like shortening telomere, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and impaired intracellular calcium signaling, which are influenced by the aging process. We hypothesize that spermidine supplements in the diet increase the telomere length. The proposed hypothesis also brings to light the differentially regulated genes involved in telomere maintenance and aging after spermidine treatment. Knowing the role of spermidine in telomere maintenance would help us understand the molecular mechanism of spermidine's effect on aging.</p> Priyanka Sharma Rishi Kumar Jaiswal Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 51 58 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.08 RESEARCH DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE USE OF CLOUD-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/50 <p>RESEARCH DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE USE OF CLOUD-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS</p> Reza Piri Amalie Horstmann Nøddeskou-Fink Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 59 61 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.09 MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/51 <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR</p> Durga Prasanna Misra Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 62 65 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.10 A BETTER FUTURE WOULD BE POSSIBLE THROUGH VACCINATION WORLDWIDE https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/52 <p>A BETTER FUTURE WOULD BE POSSIBLE THROUGH VACCINATION WORLDWIDE</p> Ilke Coskun Benlidayi Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 2 1 66 68 10.47316/cajmhe.2021.2.1.11 EMERGING ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/22 <p>Scholarly activities are increasingly dependent on a wide variety of online tools and platforms. Processing health information on such platforms may enrich research studies and solve some healthcare issues. Health information analyses and online surveys are frequently conducted to test old hypothesis and generate new ones. These studies require thorough understanding of the subject and skilful use of online platforms, including social media. Social media platforms are increasingly employed for retrieving and disseminating research data. Scholarly activities on Twitter and other globally popular social media are now recommended for research, education, and clinical practice. Aggregated social media information and related altmetric data have emerged as reflections of the immediacy effects of online sharing and commenting and as tools to complement citation analyses. Researchers and research managers may use altmetrics to plan their studies and introduce changes to the education process. Securing uninterrupted access to Internet and available online tools may facilitate quality research and other scholarly activities.</p> Marlen Yessirkepov Olena Zimba Armen Yuri Gasparyan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 112 117 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.01 ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/23 <p>ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED</p> Edward Barroga Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 118 121 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.02 REGISTERING AND REPORTING SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/24 <p>Systematic reviews are considered as the highest rung in the ladder of evidence-based medicine. They are bound by a pre-defined structure and requirement for extensive literature searches, when compared with the more liberal format of narrative reviews. Systematic review protocols should ideally be pre-registered to avoid duplication or redundancy. After defining clear review question(s), thorough literature searches form the basis of systematic reviews. Presentation of results should be qualitative or quantitative (meta-analysis) if the data is homogenous enough to permit pooling across multiple studies. Quality of individual studies by Cochrane risk of bias 2 tool for interventional studies and other suitable scales for observational studies, as well as appropriate assessment of publication bias are recommended. Certainty of outcomes should be assessed by the GRADE profiler. Finally, systematic reviews should conclude with recommendations for future research, based on their findings.</p> Pallavi Patro Durga Prasanna Misra Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 122 126 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.03 VACCINATION WITH MMR MAY REDUCE DISEASE SEVERITY IN COVID-19 PATIENTS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/25 <p>We hypothesise that MMR vaccination is possibly a safe, cheap, effective and readily available method to reduce the severity of COVID-19 disease course in health care workers, elderly patients and other people at risk. The evidence is based on relevant literature.&nbsp; Suggestions for further studies are given.</p> Johannes J. Rasker Suzanne P. Linn-Rasker Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 127 130 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.04 PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF BALNEOTHERAPY WITH POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CENTRAL ASIAN SPAS AND SANATORIUMS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/26 <p>Spa therapy includes all modalities/ treatments based on evidence that are administered in spas or sanatoriums. Balneotherapy, the immersion in mineral water, is the main balneological modality in spa therapy programs. Clinical trials performed in Europe, Turkey, and Israel have shown clinical benefits of spa therapy/ balneotherapy in several diseases mainly pertaining to rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and dermatological diseases as well. However, mechanisms by which balneotherapy may improve the clinical symptoms of patients have been less evaluated/ documented in the literature. Although the literature on mechanisms of action of balneotherapy has still been evolving and accumulating, some evidence from preliminary studies paves the way for generating a hypothesis that balneotherapy has an influence on physiological mechanisms, immune system, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Extrapolation of the evidence-based clinical practice and scientific experience of Europe, Turkey, and Israel to Central Asian spas and sanatoriums is although possible; future studies investigating clinical efficacy, safety profile, and possible mechanisms of action of balneotherapy of regional spas are needed to better understand the role of balneotherapy and whether it has any local differences.</p> Sinan Kardeş Mine Karagülle Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 131 135 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.05 THE PEER REVIEW PROCESS IN ASIA https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/27 <p>Peer reviewers are the custodians of sciences and scientific publishing. Previously regarded as a purely altruistic work, with the advent of Publons and Peer Review Week initiatives, reviewers can now get scholarly credits for their accomplishments. The number of skilled peer reviewers is limited. The sheer volume of published literature in today’s world calls for active involvement of a large corpus of reviewers. Asia has a growing workforce of biomedical researchers and scientific authors who are inadequately exposed to the global research reporting and English writing standards. Several global initiatives are underway to groom the next generation of peer reviewers and credit them for their efforts. These need to be expanded and made more accessible to scholars in Asia. Ultimately, this untapped potential may provide quality services to international peer-reviewed journals and create informed researchers and skilled authors.</p> Sakir Ahmed Benzeeta Pinto Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 136 141 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.06 THE QUEST FOR INDEXING A JOURNAL https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/28 <p>Hearing about the selection of one’s journal by a reputable indexing system pleases every editor. Journals with an international editorial members selected from prolific researchers have a higher chance of being selected by a prestigious indexing system. Geographic distribution of authors’ affiliations is another important factor. Considering a minimum of internationally acceptable editorial standards would also influence the decision of the indexing systems to select a journal—publishing few quality articles is much better than publishing a bunch of poorly designed badly reported ones. The key to success is having a group of dedicated staff with good communication skills.</p> Farrokh Habibzadeh Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 142 145 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.07 CORRECTING LANGUAGE MISTAKES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ARTICLES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/29 <p>Scientific authors must write simply and authentically. They should use clear and focused language when drafting qualitative research reports to allow for a deeper understanding of the experiences and concepts extracted. The authors must strive to correctly use subject-verb, matching, and comparing constructions. They must concisely structure the objectives, methods, and discussion. Their manuscript should have a logical flow to avoid rejection due to any ambiguous meaning.</p> Edward Barroga Glafera Janet Matanguihan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 146 151 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.08 SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION IN CENTRAL ASIA https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/30 <p>Social Media Platforms (SMPs) have emerged as the new frontiers for academic engagement, more so during the pandemic. Cultural barriers, close censorship, and language restrictions may limit the participation of Central Asian scholars in the global scientific communication. This article explores the patterns of Social Media (SoMe) use in Central Asia and outlines probable deterrents of academic engagement in the region. Some suggestions are formulated to offer digital and socio-cultural solutions aimed to improve Central Asian scholars’ activities on SoMe platforms and bridge the divide for fruitful academic partnerships.</p> Prithvi Sanjeevkumar Gaur Latika Gupta Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 152 157 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.09 MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/31 <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER</p> Latika Gupta Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 158 160 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.10 FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS TO GENERATE A GREAT HYPOTHESIS! https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/32 <p>FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS TO GENERATE A GREAT HYPOTHESIS!</p> Ilke Coskun Benlidayi Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-25 2021-01-25 2 1 161 163 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.2.11 FROM TESTABLE HYPOTHESES TO ETHICAL PAPERS AND IMPROVED HEALTH SERVICE https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1 <p>Publishing an informative, useful, and attractive journal has been a difficult task throughout the history of scientific communications. Print publishing has had its own hardships that kept editors and publishers busy with time-consuming technological processes, requiring specific skills and abundant financial investments. With the advent of digital media and Open Access, scholarly activities and knowledge transfer have accelerated and facilitated globally affordable online publishing practices.</p> Marlen Yessirkepov Armen Yuri Gasparyan Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 10 13 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.01 GENERATING WORKING HYPOTHESES FOR ORIGINAL RESEARCH STUDIES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/2 <p>A hypothesis is a statement of the expected outcome of a research study, generally based on analysis of prior published knowledge, or with reference to the previous work of the investigators. The hypothesis forms the foundation of a research proposal. A study based, and planned, on a sound hypothesis may have a greater likelihood of meaningfully contributing to science. After the generation of a hypothesis, it is equally important to appropriately design and adequately power a study (by ensuring a sufficient sample size) in order to test the hypothesis. Adhering to principles discussed forthwith shall help young researchers to generate and test their own hypotheses, and these are best learnt with experience.</p> Durga Prasanna Misra Vikas Agarwal Copyright (c) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 14 19 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.02 KAWASAKI DISEASE IN KAZAKHSTAN: AN UNMET CLINICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE? https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/3 <p>Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis targeting medium-sized and small arteries. It manifests in young children. If not appropriately treated, KD leads to the development of coronary artery aneurysms inabout 20% of patients. No local evidence-based clinical and epidemiological data on KD are currently available in Kazakhstan. The awareness of KD among physicians is inadequate, resulting in underdiagnosis of the disease in the country. Given the high priority of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Central Asian countries, clinical and epidemiological studies on KD along with measures for early diagnosis and management of the patients with cardiovascular affections are warranted.</p> Dimitri Poddighe Bakhtiyar Azhken Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 20 25 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.03 SOCIAL MEDIA FOR MEDICAL JOURNALS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/4 <p>Social networks are now an integrated part of life in most digitally connected societies. Bringing scientific papers of interest to a defined audience using the appropriate channel might substantially contribute to the impact of a scientific discovery. Various media and metrics have come to the fore in strategizing dissemination of scientific information. This opinion piece offers insights from the social-media experience of digital editors of peer-reviewed journals from non-Anglophone countries.</p> Sakir Ahmed Latika Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 26 32 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.04 COMPARING VITAMIN D STATUS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND NORTHERN EUROPE https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/5 <p>Over the past two decades, the understanding of the roles of vitamin D has expanded to include many nonskeletal effects such as reduced risk of acute respiratory tract infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, neurological diseases, and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The role of vitamin D for optimal health is well known in Western developed countries but less so in Central Asian countries. This narrative review compares the status of vitamin D between Central Asian countries and Northern European countries. The analysis also summarizes the evidence for the beneficial effects of vitamin D and recommendations for Central Asian countries.</p> William B. Grant Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 33 42 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.05 PATHOGENESIS OF FIBROMYALGIA IN PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: SCOPING REVIEW FOR HYPOTHESIS GENERATION https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/6 <p>Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) prevalence is much higher in patients with other rheumatic diseases than in the general population. This leads to increase in the perceived disease activity scores and prevents patients from reaching remission. Elucidating the pathogenesis of such “secondary” FM can help alleviate some unmet needs in these diseases.</p> <p>Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for a scoping review for hypothesis generation regarding the genesis of secondary FM.</p> <p>Results: FM has been postulated to be due to cytokine dysfunction, neurogenic neuroinflammation, stress, including social defeat, sleep disturbances, sympathetic overactivity, and small fibre neuropathy. These factors increase in most autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Further the evidence for the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of FM is seems strong. Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction are also associated with FM, but it is difficult to distinguish between cause and effect.</p> <p>Conclusion: FM is the common phenotype arising from the amalgamation of various aetiologies. Recruitment or amplification of the above 6 factors by various rheumatic diseases may thus lead precipitation of secondary FM in susceptible individuals.</p> Sakir Ahmed Able Lawrence Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 43 54 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.06 A HYPOTHETICAL ROLE FOR PLAGUE IN THE SELECTION OF MEFV MUTATION CARRIERS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/7 <p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding Pyrin. MEFV mutations are frequent in the Mediterranean region. Increased resistance to an infection endemic to this area could have caused a selective advantage for individuals with MEFV mutations. Recent studies have shown that Pyrin is a part of host defense against microorganisms and it gets activated after sensing Rho GTPase inactivation by bacteria such as Clostridium difficile or Yersinia pestis. However, Yersinia species have another effector molecule, YopM which inhibits Pyrin in addition to RhoA modifiers YopE and YopT. Continuously overactive Pyrin in individuals with MEFV mutations could be a good host defense against Yersinia infections. Y. pestis causes plague, which led to a devastating pandemic in the Mediterranean basin. Thus, plague could be the infection which caused a selective biologic advantage for MEFV mutation carriers in this area.</p> Ezgi Deniz Batu Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 55 59 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.07 INNOVATIVE IDEAS IN REGIONAL RESEARCH: A MESSAGE FROM PAKISTANI JOURNAL EDITORS https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/8 <p>INNOVATIVE IDEAS IN REGIONAL RESEARCH: A MESSAGE FROM PAKISTANI JOURNAL EDITORS</p> Aamir Raoof Memon Fatema Jawad Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 60 62 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.08 ENHANCING CLEAR EXPRESSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, AND OBJECTIVES THROUGH EFFECTIVE USE OF SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/9 <p>ENHANCING CLEAR EXPRESSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, AND OBJECTIVES THROUGH EFFECTIVE USE OF SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH</p> Edward Barroga Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 63 65 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.09 LAUNCHING A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/10 <p>LAUNCHING A SGHOLARLY JOURNAL</p> Ilke Coskun Benlidayi Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 66 68 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.10 AUTHORSHIP MALPRACTICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES https://cajmhe.com/index.php/journal/article/view/11 <p>Although the variety of research malpractices in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is similar to those documented in developed nations, authorship misuse and related issues appear to be more prevalent in the former. This article focuses on some authorship-related topics in LMIC, namely authorship disputes, excessive co-authorship and monetary incentives, authorship issues in student-mentor relationships, and authorship patterns in North-South collaborations. Universities and official bodies in LMIC must supervise the integrity of the whole research process, provide instructions on responsible research and authorship, set up the required postgraduate training programs, foster good role models in authorship, and designate an ombudsperson to advice and respond to complaints of researchers, especially students and junior faculty. Lastly, a recent framework that combines descriptive and normative elements and then uses proper metaphors to achieve an ethical definition of authorship useful in international settings is highlighted.</p> Horacio Rivera Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 2 1 69 74 10.47316/cajmhe.2020.1.1.11