Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics 2023-02-16T10:18:09+02:00 M. Yessirkepov Open Journal Systems Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics FDA-APPROVED INDICATIONS OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH) AS A DRUG: DOES IT HAVE A PLACE IN DISEASE MANAGEMENT TODAY? 2023-02-16T10:17:16+02:00 George Iliopoulos Dimitrios Daoussis <p>ACTH is a pituitary hormone important for proper function of adrenal glands, cortisol production as well as human physiology in general.&nbsp; It is involved in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders like Cushing syndrome and can be a useful diagnostic tool for diseases like primary adrenal insufficiency.&nbsp; Although popular as a hormone in endocrine system physiology and testing, ACTH has been used as a drug since the 1950s.&nbsp; Except for steroid-releasing properties, its mechanism of action involves a steroid-independent anti-inflammatory and possible immune-modulatory effect.&nbsp; Pharmaceutic ACTH has a wide range of indications approved by FDA and usually comes in the form of subcutaneous injections.&nbsp; In this narrative review, we accumulated what we considered as important data from reviews, cases and trials involving the most basic FDA-approved ACTH indications.&nbsp; A special emphasis was given on rheumatologic indications of ACTH.&nbsp; More large data studies need to be performed to assess ACTH usefulness, efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness as a drug.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EFFECT OF HYPERTENSION ON PAIN THRESHOLD IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN 2023-02-16T10:17:25+02:00 Tuba Tülay Koca Duygun Aykan Ejder Berk Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Burhan Güçmen <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Little is known about the relationship between pain and hypertension (HT). This study aimed to analyze the effect of HT on pain sensitivity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain complaints.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This analytical, cross-sectional study included 45 patients aged 29–75 years with HT. The control group comprised 44 normo/hypotensive patients aged 19–66 (P = 0.107). Education status, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, presence of diabetes mellitus, physical activity level, blood pressure measurement, anti-HT drug use, vital parameters, including heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, were recorded for all participants.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The pain score was significantly higher in the HT group, with a mean of 72.1 ± 30.2 points (P = 0.008). Also, the HT group’s systolic blood pressure and pain score were significantly positively correlated (<em>rho </em>= 0.245, P = 0.02). The pulse rate was found to be significantly related to the pain score and pain threshold (P &lt; 0.001); it was negatively correlated with algometer values (<em>rho </em>= –0.286, P = 0.015). Systolic pressure (P = 0.033) and BMI ( P &lt; 0.001) were significantly different among the groups according to physical activity level. The Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation of diastolic blood pressure with the body mass index (<em>rho </em>= 0.224, P = 0.036) and pain score (<em>rho </em>= 0.456, P &lt; 0.001).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study showed that the pain complaint increases as the blood pressure and weight increase. Also, the pain threshold decreases as the heart rate increases. The pain threshold was lower in women than in men, independent of tension.</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GROUND GLASS OPACITIES: SIGN OF CAUTION IN TYPICAL INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA 2023-02-16T10:17:33+02:00 Mehmet Engin Tezcan Sevtap Acer Kasman <p>Typical interstitial pneumonia (IP) is mainly the fibrotic form of interstitial lung disease. In some cases with typical IP, a certain amount of ground-glass opacity (GGO) can be detected on high-resolution computed tomography, however, some important issues, such as the co-existence of GGO and typical IP, still require further investigation by biopsy. After the diagnosis of typical IP, anti-fibrosis treatment is usually considered. Here, we hypothesized that GGO in typical IP could be a manifestation of an acute inflammatory attack requiring immunosuppressive therapy or an indicator of ongoing contact with trigger factors that initiate pathological reactions in typical IP.</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AN EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LONG COVID 2023-02-16T10:17:41+02:00 Joseph A. Dorri Leonard A. Jason <p>An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) can provide a window into the latent dimensions of a disease, such as Long COVID. Discovering the latent factors of Long COVID&nbsp; enables researchers and clinicians to better conceptualize, study and treat this disease. In this study, participants were recruited from social media sites dedicated to COVID and Long COVID. Among the 480 participants, those who completed at least 90% of the survey, reported symptoms for two or more months since COVID-19 symptom onset, and had not been hospitalized for COVID were used in the EFA. The mean duration since initial symptom onset was 74.0 (37.3) weeks. A new questionnaire called The DePaul Symptom Questionnaire-COVID was used to assess self-reports of the frequency and severity of 38 Long COVID symptoms experienced over the most recent month. The most burdensome symptoms were “Symptoms that get worse after physical or mental activities (also known as Post-Exertional Malaise),” “Fatigue/extreme tiredness,” “Difficulty thinking and/or concentrating,” “Sleep problems,” and “Muscle aches.” The EFA resulted in a three-factor model with factors labeled General, PEM/Fatigue/Cognitive Dysfunction, and Psychological, consisting of 16, 6, and 3 items respectively (25 items in total). The reliability of the items in the EFA was .90 using a split-half reliability test. Finally, participant self-reported level of functional impairment was analyzed across the three EFA factors. Interpretations and applications to research and practice are provided.</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING — “SO NEAR AND YET SO FAR” 2023-02-16T10:17:48+02:00 Sham Santhanam Mohit Goyal <p>Scientific knowledge needs to be widely disseminated across the globe, for it to be critically analyzed or to be built upon for future studies. The conventional publication model has been less accessible due to prohibitive subscription costs and hence the need arose for the open access model where the readers would have free access. The Open Science movement is not only about open-access journals but also includes open source, open data and methodology, open peer review, open-access indexing, and archiving. The prototype open access model is the gold model where researchers (themselves or supported by grants or funding agencies) pay certain article processing charges and the readers have free access to the content without any restrictions. Additionally, there is a need for free-to-use open-access platforms or repositories like PubMed Central to archive the open-access content. Institutional repository is another way for collecting, archiving, and distributing the scholarly contents of an academic institution. Preprint servers allow archiving manuscripts before they are submitted to or undergo review for publication, and they offer an important platform for freely sharing knowledge. While open-access model looks attractive, it has its challenges. Currently, the change to open-access model has meant the transfer of the financial burden, earlier borne by the readers, to the authors in the form of APCs. Irrespective of the model, there is a need to reconsider the high subscription costs and the article processing charges which are often prohibitive for many. Science must be accessible to the researchers and the public at a reasonable cost without delay.</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 DYSTOPIAN CASES OF ORCID IDENTIFIERS: ANIMAL-ASSOCIATED ACCOUNTS 2023-02-16T10:17:56+02:00 Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva <p>DYSTOPIAN CASES OF ORCID IDENTIFIERS: ANIMAL-ASSOCIATED ACCOUNTS</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SOCIAL MEDIA IN SCIENCE 2023-02-16T10:18:02+02:00 Chrysoula G Gialouri George E Fragoulis <p>Day by day, social media are entering our lives changing our every-day life and habits. This could not leave science unaffected. Over the last years, a lot of scientists have started using social media, exchanging ideas and sharing knowledge. Scientific journals have also followed being active participators in the social media world. In this opinion article we provide some arguments about the positive role of social media in the life of a scientist, highlighting at the same time the caveats that are encountered.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 MY LIFE AS A VITAMIN D RESEARCHER 2023-02-16T10:18:09+02:00 William B Grant <p>MY LIFE AS A VITAMIN D RESEARCHER</p> 2023-02-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 DIFFERENCES IN BEHÇET’S DISEASE PHENOTYPE ACCORDING TO SEX: HYPOTHESES AND RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES 2022-11-16T19:53:09+02:00 Hafize Emine Sönmez Ezgi Deniz Batu <p>Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem vasculitis affecting both arteries and veins. Although the disease affects both sexes equally, males and females may express different phenotypes. The exact association between sex-related factors and BD phenotype is not clear, while many factors, such as genetic factors, hormones, and environmental and epigenetic factors may be the underlying factors of sex-related differences. This article summarizes the current literature focusing on the underlying factors determining differences in BD phenotype according to sex.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) ETHICS IN MEDICAL RESEARCH AND PUBLISHING 2022-11-16T19:54:20+02:00 Hamid Ghaderi Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki Estie Kruger <p>This review aims to provide a concise argument on the importance of ethics in scientific endeavors. Consideration should be given to all aspects of a research project, including, study&nbsp;design, approval process, execution, and publication. In addition, parameters such as human roles in research and human rights are noted. Furthermore, critical questions such as confidentiality, beneficence, and non-maleficent research are emphasized. Apart from the significance of data analysis, the adverse consequences of unethical behaviors such as plagiarism, data falsification, and research bias are investigated.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) YOUTUBE AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 VACCINE 2022-11-16T19:55:56+02:00 Erhan Kaya Mikail Özdemir Hüseyin Üçer Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> YouTube is a very important source of information. The videos in YouTube provide a message with information. The purpose of this article was to assess the main message of available materials about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines on YouTube.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, the four search terms "COVID-19 vaccine", "COVID-19 vaccination", "Coronavirus vaccine", "Coronavirus vaccination" were scanned on the YouTube ( media platform on 9 February 2021. We examined video parameters i.e., durations, view counts, likes, dislikes, comments, messages and sources of the 83 videos about COVID-19 vaccine.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The messages were defined as 52 (62.6%) positive, 12 (14.5%) negative, and 17 (20.5%) ambiguous about getting vaccinated. Significant differences were determined between the message category groups in respect of the like ratio (p = 0.014). Positive group videos were less liked.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> More negative messages about the COVID-19 vaccine were found in media-sourced videos. Negative and ambiguous videos were more attractive to YouTube users. Scientists, policymakers, and community leaders should play a role in disseminating information about COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PSYCHOMETRIC ATTRIBUTES OF THE "PHYSICIANS' ATTITUDES TOWARD ESTABLISHING PERSONAL AND FRIENDLY COMMUNICATION WITH PATIENTS" SCALE 2022-11-21T20:51:12+02:00 Fatemeh Hajibabaee Atefeh Abdolkarimi Mir Saeed Yekaninejad Hadis Ashrafizadeh Amirahmad Shojaei <p>The physician-patient communication is one of the most important forms of communication in the health system. If this communication loses its moral aspects for different reasons, it will lead to mistrust. Therefore, this research was conducted to design and evaluate the psychometric attributes of the "Physicians' attitudes toward establishing personal and friendly communication with patients" scale. The present methodological research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, conventional content analysis was used. In the second phase, the terms of the questionnaire were developed using the results of the qualitative part. In the third stage, the psychometric attributes of the questionnaire were determined using face validity, content, and reliability of internal consistency and stability.&nbsp; The score of all items of the questionnaire using the effective item selection method was more than 1.5. The CVR of 15 items was more than 0.62 and the CVI of all items was higher than 0.79. Cronbach's alpha of 0.749 was obtained to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire using SPSS-v24 software. The used questionnaire has appropriate internal validity and reliability. Based on the results, there was no comprehensive and unified attitude towards establishing personal and friendly relations between a physician and a patient among experts.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) REVIEW: RESEARCH INTEREST SCORE IN RESEARCHGATE: THE SILVER BULLET OF SCIENTOMETRICS OR THE EMPEROR’S NEW CLOTHES? 2022-11-16T20:00:06+02:00 Haris Memisevic <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Scientists have long searched for the best way to evaluate scientific performance and have come up with numerous indices. Probably, the most famous index is the h-index, a metric that has been used widely in science metrics ever since it appeared. In this study, I evaluated the potential of the new metric <em>Research Interest</em> <em>Score</em> created by ResearchGate (RG).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>I analyzed the different metric indices for 88 most cited researchers at the University of Sarajevo. In particular, the number of citations and h-indexes were taken from the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases for these researchers and were correlated with their Research Interest Scores. As a measure of correlation, Pearson correlation coefficients was used. In addition, I conducted a regression analysis to examine how scientometric indices from the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar predict the <em>Research Interest Score</em>.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The <em>Research Interest Score</em> was most strongly correlated with the number of Google Scholar Citations, followed by the Web of Science citations.&nbsp; Interestingly, the <em>Research Interest Score</em> was not highly correlated with any of the h-indexes. The regression model was statistically significant and explained 90% of the variance in the Research Interest Scores predicted by the Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar metric indices. The strongest predictor of the <em>Research Interest</em> <em>Score</em> was the number of Google Scholar citations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The <em>Research Interest Score</em>, a new scientometric measure created by ResearchGate, certainly has a potential to be used as a valid measure of scientific impact.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) UNIVERSAL HUMAN-CENTERED HEALTH COVERAGE IN THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION 2022-11-16T20:02:26+02:00 Nurlan N. Brimkulov Gulnara Zh. Kapanova Sundetgali B. Kalmakhanov Aidana R. Sagitova Kurmanjan E. Bucaraeva <p>The article discusses the necessity to strengthen action to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), which has been slowed down by the COVID-19 pandemic, considering policy concepts. The dynamics of the UHC index in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan for 2000-2019 is regarded. Several global activities for the development of primary health care and UHC in Kazakhstan are described, confirming the possibility of effective usage of political power to promote the ideas of primary health care, and this experience should be taken into account by other countries around the world.</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) FROM HIPPOCRATIC OATH TO DECLARATION OF GENEVA: THE EVOLUTION OF ETHICAL VALUES IN MEDICAL PRACTICE 2022-11-16T20:03:29+02:00 Abraham Edgar Gracia-Ramos <p>FROM HIPPOCRATIC OATH TO DECLARATION OF GENEVA: THE EVOLUTION OF ETHICAL VALUES IN MEDICAL PRACTICE</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER, EDITOR AND MENTOR 2022-11-16T20:10:41+02:00 Mohammad Abdollahi <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER, EDITOR AND MENTOR</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) CONDUCTING RESEARCH: IS IT ROCKET SCIENCE? 2022-11-16T20:13:20+02:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>CONDUCTING RESEARCH: IS IT ROCKET SCIENCE?</p> 2022-11-14T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) CAN PULMONARY SURFACTANT PROTEINS BE RELIABLE INDICATORS OF COVID-19-ASSOCIATED PULMONARY INJURY? 2022-08-04T16:13:10+03:00 Yuliya Fedorchenko Olena Zimba <p>The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging all over the world. New variants of the coronavirus emerge and infect recovered from previous infections, vaccinated, and unvaccinated subjects. One aspect remains unchanged that is the lungs are the main targets of the pandemic coronavirus. This challenging situation requires the search for reliable predictive markers of severe and complicated course of the disease. Serum surfactant proteins are known to correlate with pulmonary injury severity in numerous diseases. Measurement of such protein levels may help timely predict the risk. Surfactant proteins can also be helpful diagnostic purposes in COVID-19.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS AS A PLAUSIBLE CAUSE OF OVERACTIVE BLADDER IN SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS: A HYPOTHESIS 2022-08-04T16:19:23+03:00 Neslihan Gokcen <p>Patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, known as interstitial cystitis (IC), tend to have autoimmune diseases, such as Sjogren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis and, rarely, systemic sclerosis (SSc). SLE patients with IC are prone to present with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Lower urinary tract involvement is less usual in SSc but OAB symptoms are quite common among SSc patients with lower urinary tract involvement. The underlying mechanisms of lower urinary tract involvement, including OAB, in SSc could be as follows: i) vasculopathy, ii) fibrosis and/or sclerosis of bladder wall, iii) systemic sclerosis-associated myopathy, and iv) autonomic dysfunction. However, the role of IC leading to OAB is unclear. This hypothesis suggests that in patients with SSc, OAB may be associated with IC.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) YOUTUBE AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT GONORRHEA 2022-08-04T16:25:33+03:00 Erhan Kaya Yavuzalp Solak Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the quality of videos on YouTube related to gonorrhea.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Using the search term “gonorrhea”, the first 200 relevant videos on YouTube were saved to a file. All video parameters, including the number of views, likes, dislikes and comments were recorded. The Global Quality Scale (GQS) was used to evaluate the quality of the videos.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After exclusions, 144 videos were selected and evaluated by two independent observers. The median duration of the videos was calculated as 3.97 minutes. Most videos were provided by physicians (59 videos). According to the GQS scores, 47.9% (n=69) of the videos were evaluated as high quality, 19.4% (n=28) as intermediate quality, and 32.6% (n=47) as low quality. There were significant differences in video length between the high, intermediate, and low-quality groups (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> YouTube can be considered an important source of gonorrhea videos.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) ANALYSIS OF RETRACTED PUBLICATIONS FROM KAZAKHSTAN 2022-08-04T16:29:00+03:00 Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Retraction is a mechanism to prevent the dissemination of erroneous, misleading, or biased data and information. Various factors can cause retraction. In this article, we focused on Kazakhstan data and aimed to present an analysis of retracted publications from Kazakhstan.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data for this descriptive cross-sectional article were obtained from the 'Retraction Watch’ database without time restriction. Among the country selections, 'Kazakhstan,' 'Tajikistan,' 'Uzbekistan,' 'Kyrgyzstan,' and 'Turkmenistan' were chosen, and the number of retracted articles was recorded. For detailed analysis, Kazakhstan data were focused on and further analyses were performed on Kazakhstan data. Article title, authors, time interval (in days) from publication to retraction, date of retraction, source of publication, subject area of publication, publication type, and retraction reason were recorded in an Excel file.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The number of retracted publications was detected as 64 from Kazakhstan, 49 from Tajikistan, 17 from Uzbekistan, 12 from Kyrgyzstan, and 1 from Turkmenistan. Kazakhstan data were as follows: The median time interval between publication date and retraction date was 475 (46 - 2074) days. Retraction reasons were listed as: Plagiarism (n = 22), peer review issues (n = 21), duplication (n = 11), author disagreements and conflict (n = 5), error (n = 5), fraud (n = 2), ethical issues ( n = 1), publication issues (n = 1), and unknown (n = 1). The three areas with the most retracted articles were engineering (n = 22), education (n = 21), and technology (n = 12).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Kazakhstan was first among the five Central Asian countries in terms of the number of retracted publications. Plagiarism, peer review issues, and duplication were at the forefront of the retraction reasons. There is a need for approaches to increase the knowledge of researchers in Kazakhstan about the retraction reasons and ethical research conditions.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) PEERING, VIEWING AND REVIEWING: WHAT MAKES A PEER REVIEW GOOD 2022-08-04T16:32:50+03:00 Mohini Sakir Ahmed <p>Peer review is an integral part of an ethical scientific publication process. Though not perfect, it has not been replaceable in the last couple of centuries since the advent of scientific journals. Recent innovations include online anonymized credits for peer review that can be used to augment an academician’s resume. Submissions and retraction are ever growing, increasing the demands from peer reviewers. The rewards may not seem commensurate but any person of science should contribute to peer review as a guardian of science. This short review looks at the ideal peer review along with inherent challenges. It makes suggestions on how novice and intermediate reviewers can improve their contributions as well as introduces various resources relevant for peer review.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) INFLUENCE OF CITATION PRACTICES ON ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT 2022-08-04T16:36:22+03:00 Horacio Rivera <p>In writing scientific papers, proper citation and referencing are crucial and thereby should be taught to graduate students and novice researchers as tools for counteracting the pervasive errors in citing, quoting, and referencing. Although the relevance of citation counts and derived indicators such as the h-index in assessing research performance is out of question, this emphasis has resulted in an “impact or perish” culture featuring post-production misrepresentation and related misbehaviors. Herein, I appraise the use of citations in academic assessment, citations in original vs. review articles, convenience and country of origin biases, and some related issues. The current landscape highlights that formal instruction on citation practices and their implications should be included in graduate programs and enduringly reinforced by mentors in laboratories.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) THE BLARING SILENCE 2022-08-04T16:40:28+03:00 Paulami Deshmukh <p>THE BLARING SILENCE</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A STUDENT AND RESEARCHER 2022-08-05T13:29:43+03:00 Pankti Mehta <p>MY LIFE AS A STUDENT AND RESEARCHER</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) MAY AUTHORS’ PUBLISHED ARTICLES LAST FOREVER! 2022-08-04T16:55:45+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>MAY AUTHORS’ PUBLISHED ARTICLES LAST FOREVER!</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) CYTOKINES AS POTENTIAL MARKERS OF COVID-19 SEVERITY AND OUTCOMES 2022-03-29T10:54:37+03:00 Yuliya Fedorchenko Olena Zimba <p>The continual propagation of SARS-CoV-2 has changed health care systems globally. Ranging degrees of clinical severity in COVID-19 patients have been noted in numerous literature sources. Cytokines play a crucial role in the development of key immunological processes in COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 causes imbalance of the immune system and might culminate in cytokine storm and multiple organ involvement. The prevailing role of some special cytokines might serve as indicators of disease severity. Further stratification of patients in the context of specific cytokines can be beneficial for diagnosing disease stages. It can prevent critical states owing to timely diagnosis and targeted therapy. Targeting peculiar cytokines can markedly reduce complications. The aim of this article is to comprehensively overview the role of the main cytokines in COVID-19 pathogenesis and distinguish prognostic factors. Insights into specific cytokine involvement in COVID-19 pathogenesis may open new avenues for diagnosing hyperinflammatory COVID-19, predicting its outcomes and providing individualized cytokine-targeted therapeutic approaches.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) SEASONAL VARIATIONS AND BEHÇET’S DISEASE ACTIVITY 2022-03-29T11:01:43+03:00 Döndü Üsküdar Cansu Cengiz Korkmaz <p>Behçet’s disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis with mucocutaneous manifestations such as recurrent oral ulcers and genital ulcers in addition to major organ involvements including the vascular and central nervous systems. Many studies have found that the prevalence of clinical symptoms of BD varies by geographical region. The course of BD is characterized by relapses and remissions. Infectious agents and altered microbiomes have been blamed for exacerbations of the disease. Stress, physical exhaustion, mechanical oral trauma, and hormonal effects have been specifically associated with flare-ups. A seasonal pattern in the activation of certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, has been reported. However, the relationship, if any, between the seasonal changes and the symptoms and organ involvements of BD has yet to be determined. In this review, we discussed whether clinical findings in BD patients are related to the seasons in terms of activation.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) SMOKING AND BUERGER’S DISEASE: FROM HYPOTHESES TO EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS 2022-03-29T11:08:39+03:00 Bahare Fazeli Mitra Masoudian <p>Early after the definition of thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), it was noticed that TAO patients are almost always tobacco smokers. Later on, the relationship between continued smoking and TAO prognosis was documented. Consequently, smoking came to be considered as the main cause of TAO. However, it is still unknown why, amongst millions of smokers, only a small number develop TAO. It also remains unknown why, of the TAO patients who continue smoking, only half of them show aggravation and undergo amputations. The aims of this review are to investigate evidence in support of or against the relationship between TAO and smoking, according to the TAO-related literature published from 1908 to January 2022, and to discover the possible role of smoking in TAO pathophysiology. Taken together, it appears that smoking predisposes TAO patients toward the potential harmful effects of the main aetiology and helps the main aetiology to develop vascular lesions. Therefore, smoking cessation would almost always be helpful for improving the prognosis of TAO patients and reducing disease manifestation. However, concluding that smoking is not the main aetiology of TAO would open a new door to finding the true main aetiology of TAO and to discovering the appropriate treatment and medical management of patients who fail to stop smoking.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR POST-ACUTE SEQUELAE OF SARS CoV-2 INFECTION 2022-03-29T11:17:12+03:00 Leonard A. Jason Mohammed F. Islam <p>This study aimed to contribute to the development of a research case definition for post-acute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC) using a PASC data set and experiences from case definitions developed for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).&nbsp; Our database included patients with PASC who provided self-report symptomology during the onset of infection and the time of survey completion (post-infection).&nbsp; We found that we could distinguish between those with mild, moderate, and severe PASC.&nbsp; Regarding the proportion meeting an ME/CFS case definition, we found 0% in the mildly impaired group, 30.6% to 62.6% in the moderately impaired group, and 74.3% to 89.0% in the severely impaired group. Based on these preliminary data, we propose a 5-part classification system for PASC.&nbsp; Axis 1 involves the variant of the COVID infection and the type of documentation of the infection. Axis 2 involves the time elapsed since infection. Axis 3 involves the type of medical collateral damage to different organs. Axis 4 involves functional impairment classified into three categories: mild, moderate, or severe. &nbsp;Finally, Axis 5 is the identified symptoms. Finally, if the patient has been sick for 6 or more months, it is important to determine whether the person has met the ME/CFS criteria.&nbsp; This proposed 5-part classification system for PASC might bring considerable clarity to diagnosing PASC.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) PLAGIARISM AND ITS REPERCUSSIONS: A PRIMER ON RESPONSIBLE SCIENTIFIC WRITING 2022-03-29T11:25:23+03:00 Pankti Mehta Sayan Mukherjee <p><strong>Background</strong>: Plagiarism, in simple words meaning theft of ideas or text, is a grave scientific misconduct that is talked about frequently, however is notable in its conspicuous absence from the formal educational curriculum. Students and young researchers tend to engage in this malpractice, intentionally or unintentionally, due to various reasons.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: In this review, we aim to discuss a clear concept about plagiarism from its origin to its consequences, with special considerations about its status in the COVID-19 pandemic. This lucid conceptualization will help young authors invest in original research in terms of both the idea and the script, avoiding unnecessary rejections and breach in medical ethics.</p> <p><strong>Search Strategy</strong>: An electronic search strategy was performed on MEDLINE using the following keywords: “Plagiarism” OR “Plagiarism AND reasons” OR “Plagiarism AND consequences OR retractions” OR “Plagiarism AND detection”.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of 2112 articles obtained, 36 were selected for the review. The main reasons for this malpractice were pressure for publication under a limited time frame along with a lack of training for scientific writing.</p> <p>The forms of plagiarism observed include intentional and unintentional, theft of ideas, copying verbatim, graphics, self-plagiarism and translational plagiarism. Use of various software are available for detection of plagiarism like iThenticate, Turnitin Feedback Studio, Grammarly etc along with careful reviewing by authors, reviewers and editors can detect this menace and help maintain originality in science. The consequences can be severe, ranging from defamation to monetary to legal action against the authors. Conducting interactive workshops on scientific writing along with promoting creativity in thought at the level of grass-root education is the key to preventing the scientific misconduct of plagiarism amongst students and young researchers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Plagiarism is a serious scientific misconduct that must be discussed with students and young researchers, and its prevention is the key to fostering growth in medical science and academics.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) HOSPITAL-MEDIA RELATIONSHIP AND PATIENTS’ PRIVACY: CODIFYING THE ETHICAL GUIDELINE 2022-04-04T11:49:09+03:00 Pooneh Salari Mahshad Noroozi Alireza Parsapour <p>The hospital-media relationship could be mutually beneficial. Appealing to maximum readers and surviving in business are priorities in journalism. Without adherence to an ethical framework and main ethical principles including privacy and confidentiality, some detrimental impacts may occur. Thus, we aimed at codifying an ethical guideline for hospital-media relationship in Iran to maintain a proper and ethical relationship by emphasizing on patients’ privacy and confidentiality. The study was performed using the qualitative approach in two phases. The current policies and relevant reports in the literature were reviewed and their contents were analyzed. Subsequently, the first draft of the guideline was codified which was followed by the second phase in which the draft was finalized by two focus groups. Finally, a draft of an ethical guideline consisting of 79 articles in 6 themes was developed including the general principles, work flow in hospital-media relationship, duties of hospital representative, physicians’ guide, media guide, and patients’ guide. The guideline focuses on patients’ privacy, confidentiality and the privacy of the healthcare system in mutual hospital-media relationships. It is suggested that by implementing the guideline, the patients’ right would be respected and the public trust to the healthcare system will be fostered.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR 2022-03-29T11:58:18+03:00 Takako Kojima <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) QUALITY PEER REVIEW IS ESSENTIAL FOR SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING 2022-03-29T12:05:28+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>QUALITY PEER REVIEW IS ESSENTIAL FOR SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) ROLE OF MANUAL THERAPY AND MASSAGE IN THE TREATMENT OF FIBROMYALGIA: TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS 2021-12-28T21:23:41+02:00 Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol Serkan Usgu <p>Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic rheumatic disease in which pain is predominant and accompanied by fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Although there are numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic alternatives, symptom control is frequently problematic. Manual therapy covers manipulating soft tissue and various joints using the hands. It is organized by mapping of soft tissue structures with rhythmically applied pressure to improve physical function, facilitate daily activities, promote rehabilitation procedures and decrease pain. &nbsp;Massage is generally accepted as an essential component of manual therapy. Stretching and mobilizations are also part of manual therapy. Although numerous beneficial effects of manual therapy and massage on the musculoskeletal system and pain have been proven, the data in FMS patients studies are inconclusive. We hypothesize that manual therapy and massage are beneficial therapeutic options for the control of symptoms of FMS patients. Furthermore, these strategies can be employed in conjunction with well-established and high-evidence therapeutic procedures. Future research should focus on establishing standardized protocols for manual therapy and massage, which is one of the major limitations. To ensure a high level of evidence, research studies with large sample sizes, long follow-up periods and methodologically complete are needed.</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) NOT JUST CALORIC RESTRICTION: A COMPLEX APPROACH TO PROLONG LIFESPAN AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE 2021-12-28T21:29:23+02:00 Galina V. Morgunova <p>Aging is an urgent healthcare issue in view of the rapid growth of the proportion of older persons. Searching for reliable aging biomarkers and prolonging lifespan are increasingly important scientific directions. Experimental gerontology helps to explore fundamental facts which are not always applicable in clinical scenarios. As an example, caloric restriction is one of the key interventions that prolongs laboratory animals’ lifespan and ameliorates some, but not all, aging biomarkers in humans. Consequences of overeating such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are taking their toll with aging, making caloric restriction a hot topic in gerontology and geriatrics. Nevertheless, caloric restriction is not widely applicable in view of poor adherence to and limitations of strict diets. Drugs mimicking caloric restrictions, the so-called caloric restriction mimetics, are developed to overcome these limitations. Caloric restriction alone is not a panacea since metabolic pathways are complex and not responsive to a single intervention. Fasting and exercising are additional options for reducing effects of excessive intake of calories. Arguably, physical activity significantly improves the quality of life at old age and delays the onset of overt insulin resistance and associated diseases. Thus, developing optimal fasting and exercising schemes is becoming increasingly important. Such interventions are confounded by a number of factors, including circadian and other biorhythms and baseline metabolic activity. It is justifiable to test fasting and exercising in experimental animals to reveal numerous confounding factors. A hypothesis in this article points to the role of complex interventions such as moderate and balanced diet, intermittent fasting, and physical exercise adjusted to circadian rhythms for prolonging life and improving quality of life. The hypothesis may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of aging and perspectives of anti-aging drug therapies.</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) PUBLONS BASED PROFILING OF TURKISH REVIEWERS AND ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS 2021-12-29T15:13:45+02:00 Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Publons is the most prestigious and well-organized platform that allows to evaluate peer review metrics. It also provides publication and citation data as it is synchronized with the Web of Science. There are socio-cultural ties between Central Asian countries and Turkey, and these countries can take Turkey as a model for scientific development. Therefore, it will be useful for Central Asian countries to summarize Turkey's Publons activities. In this study, we used Publons database to list the top institutions, researchers and reviewers in Turkey.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Publons database was used to export the data on October 10, 2021. The top 20 researchers were identified in terms of the number of verified reviews. Additionally, the top 20 institutions were determined in terms of the number of researchers, number of verified reviews and top reviewers.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> On Publons, 57464 registered researchers from Turkey were found (ranked 7th) and 484 of these researchers had top reviewer status (ranked 16th). A total&nbsp;of 175644 verified reviews were detected from Turkey-based researchers (ranked 16th)&nbsp;and of which 45835 were performed in the last 12 months (ranked 14th). Based on the total number of researchers, four institutions from Turkey were in the top 100 in the world rankings (Hacettepe University, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, and Cukurova University). There were no institutions from Turkey among the top 100 in the lists created according to the number of verified reviews and top reviewers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Turkey has a considerable number of researchers registered with Publons. However, Turkey should follow a scientific route in terms of verified reviews. Turkey and Central Asian countries can create scientific collaborations and cooperative projects. Thus, Central Asian countries will benefit from Turkey's experiences.</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) MEDICAL HUMANITIES AND ITS ROLE IN SHAPING ETHICS IN MEDICAL GRADUATES 2021-12-28T21:42:18+02:00 Pankti Mehta Sakir Ahmed <p>Medicine as a field is unique in the sense that the skill to relate to people weighs heavier on the doctor than the skill required to practise it. Medical humanities is an interdisciplinary field that considers issues of health in the context of history, philosophy, social studies, and anthropology among others, enabling students to change their practice from “looking” to “seeing” the patient as a whole. Unfortunately, current medical training is focused on academics with students left on their own to acquire communication and ancillary skills. In the core medical curriculum, a structured training in medical humanities remains lacking. Herein, we discuss the need, student’s perspectives, and the approach going forward in the inculcation of medical humanities in the medical training with a particular focus on medical ethics.</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN THE PUBLISHING ENTERPRISE: FOCUS ON JOURNAL EDITORS 2021-12-28T21:48:04+02:00 Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva <p>Editors play a central role and form an essential link in the publication process. Consequently, they hold considerable influence as to how the literature is molded, and what eventually gets published. In addition to their standard editorial responsibilities, holding that amount of power, editors have extremely high responsibilities to declare any conflicts of interest (COIs) internal to, and external to, the peer review process, particularly those involving personal relationships and networks. This is because they also exist in the peer community, can be high-profile public figures, and form a very unique and restricted – in terms of size, membership and exclusivity – set of individuals. Consequently, editors need to declare their COIs openly, transparently, and publicly on their editor board profiles, and as part of their curriculum vitae. Without such declarations, the greater risk is that editors might have unregulated freedom to enforce their own individual or group biases, through hidden relationships and networks, including the possibility of hiding instances of favoritism, cronyism and nepotism. In the worst-case scenario, this might reflect editorial corruption. Hidden COIs in authors, which tend to be the focus of the academic publishing establishment, including in codes of conduct and ethical guidelines such as those by COPE and the ICMJE, tend to down-play editorial COIs, or restrict them to scrutiny during the peer review process. This opinion piece examines whether there is a systemic problem with under-reported editorial COIs, particularly personal and non-financial COIs, that extend beyond the peer review process and their editorial positions. Greater awareness, debate, and education of this issue are needed.</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) CAN VIRTUE ETHICS BRIDGE EAST AND WEST? 2021-12-28T21:55:09+02:00 Nalakath A. Uvais <p>CAN VIRTUE ETHICS BRIDGE EAST AND WEST?</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) THE RESEARCHER 2021-12-28T22:01:31+02:00 Urvashi Kumar <p>THE RESEARCHER</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A CLINICIAN, RESEARCHER AND EDITOR 2021-12-28T22:04:50+02:00 Tsvetoslav Georgiev <p>MY LIFE AS A CLINICIAN, RESEARCHER AND EDITOR</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) WAYS TO IMPROVE VISIBILITY OF PUBLICATIONS 2021-12-28T22:08:56+02:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>WAYS TO IMPROVE VISIBILITY OF PUBLICATIONS</p> 2021-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) EMBRACING SOCIAL MEDIA FOR GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES 2021-10-06T12:25:00+03:00 Marlen Yessirkepov Armen Yuri Gasparyan <p>EMBRACING SOCIAL MEDIA FOR GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION APPROACHES IN THROMBOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH COVID-19 2021-10-06T12:26:32+03:00 Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol <p>An increasing number of publications have supported the determination of thrombosis associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite prophylactic drug applications, post-COVID-19 thrombosis cannot be completely prevented. Thrombosis becomes a complex problem that is difficult to avoid, particularly in intensive care patients. It is also possible to see cases of thromboembolism secondary to quarantine and home isolation. In addition to the classical pathophysiological mechanisms in Virchow’s triad, more complex processes specific to COVID-19 may also trigger thrombosis. The aims of this review were to describe physical medicine and rehabilitation practices that can be applied in addition to medical recommendations for thrombosis in COVID-19 patients, and to explain the specific features and mechanism of action of these methods. This process, which starts with education sessions, should continue to reduce immobility as much as possible. Personalized exercise programs should be recommended after evaluating the individual’s condition, exercise history, risk of falling, and comorbid diseases. In parallel with technological progress, more innovative devices have been developed and thus mechanical compression methods and neuromuscular electrical stimulation have become available for this purpose. The most important features of physical medicine and rehabilitation practices are the relatively low cost and the low incidence of complications.</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) ROLE OF VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION IN THE PREVENTION OF INFECTION AND SEVERE COURSE IN COVID-19: TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS 2021-10-06T12:27:49+03:00 Mohit Goyal Neha Goyal <p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted the normal activities of various settings, including clinics, laboratories, and libraries. As the world deals with the fast-mutating causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), apart from the search for the best vaccine candidate, efforts towards repurposing existing molecules to save lives must continue. Considerable interest has centered around the implications of vitamin D deficiency and its supplementation on the outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We hypothesize that vitamin D supplementation has the potential to confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and a severe COVID-19 course. Various animal, human observational as well as interventional studies have shown a protective role of vitamin D in COVID-19. More robustly designed studies where vitamin D is supplemented prophylactically and administered to those already infected are needed to determine the precise contribution of this supplementation in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and modifying the course of COVID-19.</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) DYNAMICS OF CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE EFFECT OF QUARANTINE АND BEYOND 2021-10-06T12:28:54+03:00 Snezhina Lazova Tsvetelina Velikova <p>Monitoring epidemic processes and the dynamics of the spread of infectious diseases is essential for predicting their distribution and effective planning in healthcare. The importance of studying seasonal trends in the spread of respiratory viral infections and the specific effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions in nationwide scales and the use of available vaccines stand out even more in the context of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Even if the dynamics of pediatric respiratory viral infections show some variation at the national and local levels, depending on health regulation, respiratory viral pathogens follow a typical pattern of incidence. Therefore, we hypothesize that anticipated reduction of the incidence of common respiratory viral infections would undoubtedly exert positive effects, such as ease of burdening healthcare that combates the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we suspect a shift in familiar seasonal characteristics of common respiratory viral infections. We also speculate that strict long-term limitations of the natural spread of respiratory viral infections can lead to the development of hard-to-predict epidemiological outliers. Additionally, the tricky balance between humanity’s natural impulse to return to normalcy and control the new and still dynamically evolving infection could lead to new threats from old and well-known pathogens. Finally, we hypothesize that the absence of regular influenza virus circulation may lead to a high mismatch rate and a significant reduction in flu vaccine efficacy.</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) UPDATES ON INFORMATION REGARDING THE DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS PLATFORM MAY INCREASE ITS RELIABILITY 2021-10-06T12:29:48+03:00 Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva <p>The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a leading whitelist of open access journals (OAJs), that is, OAJs that are presumably safe to publish in, or scholarly, because they follow best practices established by COPE/DOAJ/OASPA/WAME. Academics rely on the DOAJ to select OAJs of choice, and filter for particular needs, for example, English-only or no article processing charges. A search of DOAJ-indexed OAJs publishing work on ornamental research identified five OAJs, but 60% of them had incorrect and thus misleading information. The ‘last update’ of all five&nbsp; OAJs were outdated. The DOAJ must ensure that indexed OAJs have updated information. The Editors of OAJs also bear responsibility.</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDUCATOR 2021-10-06T12:30:29+03:00 Tsvetelina Velikova <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDUCATOR</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) ONLINE MEETINGS DURING THE ERA OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-10-06T12:31:43+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>ONLINE MEETINGS DURING THE ERA OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) ALTMETRICS AND CITATION METRICS AS COMPLEMENTARY INDICATORS FOR RESEARCH MANAGEMENT 2021-07-04T11:30:03+03:00 Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol <p>The quality and impact of scholarly articles are traditionally evaluated using metrics that put citation counts at the center. In the era of digitization, advanced online platforms and social media have transformed the dissemination of scientific information results and introduced new metrics for evaluating the influence of scholarly outputs and planning research studies. Alternative metrics (altmetrics) have emerged as tools for immediate measuring of scholarly outputs upon their online publication and dissemination through numerous online platforms, including social media channels. The Altmetrtic Attention Score by has gained its global importance as an integral indicator for evaluation of constantly changing societal influence of individual articles. To a large extent, this and other social media metrics complement established citation metrics, allowing to visualize and predict implications at early stages of post-publication promotion. This article overviews characterstics of various altmetric tools and their growing roles for planning and evaluating scientific research.</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) GOUT AND THE CENTRAL ASIAN DIET 2021-07-04T11:30:15+03:00 Margarita A. Gromova Vladimir V. Tsurko Anna S. Melekhina <p>Patients with gout are advised to follow a certain diet. The search for healthy eating habits continues. This overview aims to explore the impact of the Central Asian diet on the development and course of hyperuricemia and gout and to propose related preventive measures. We processed English articles reflecting on the impact of the Central Asian diet on the development of gout and the frequency of gout attacks. Central Asian dishes such as lagman, pilaf, and manty are distinguished for high nutritional value and abundance of saturated fats, red meat, and trans fats. Moderate consumption of Central Asian traditional dishes is advisable to prevent weight gain and gout attacks. Patients with gout are additionally encouraged to consume low-calorie and non-fat products and regularly intake fruits and vegetables during meals. Patients with gout should be provided with information about a healthy diet and lifestyle. More evidence-based studies are warranted to provide better quality guidance on gout prevention and treatment.</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) AVASCULAR NECROSIS DUE TO CORTICOSTEROID THERAPY IN COVID-19 AS A SYNDEMIC 2021-07-04T11:30:28+03:00 Serkan Ergözen Egemen Kaya <p>To date, over 163 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and over 3.3 million deaths from COVID-19 have been reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is still no specific treatment for the disease. Some empirical and supportive medications have been used thus far, including antivirals, antipyretics, antibiotics, and corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive medications that are used to treat several diseases. These agents can produce undesirable and occasionally severe systemic adverse effects. Although the occurrence and severity of most adverse effects are related to the dose and duration of the corticosteroid therapy, avascular necrosis is not directly associated with this dose and duration, and may occur without osteoporosis. Corticosteroids are not recommended for routine use in COVID-19 patients by the WHO. However, these medications have been widely used for their treatment. Avascular necrosis is a progressive and incapacitating condition. The causes of avascular necrosis are categorized into traumatic and non-traumatic. The majority of non-traumatic cases are associated with the use of corticosteroids. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial owing to the rapidly progressive nature of the disease. Severe COVID-19 patients are at risk of avascular necrosis due to corticosteroid therapy. The hypothesis presented herein suggests that hyperbaric oxygenation in combination with adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation and individualized exercise may be an effective, safe, and noninvasive&nbsp; treatment modality, preventing from the progression of avascular necrosis.</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) AUTOIMMUNE MYELOFIBROSIS ASSOCIATED WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: EXCEPTIONALLY RARE OR UNDERRECOGNIZED? 2021-07-04T11:30:42+03:00 Cansu Döndü Üsküdar Cengiz Korkmaz <p>Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease which may involve several organs or organ systems. SLE may also have hematological as well as joint, kidney, and central nervous system involvements. Hematological abnormalities such as anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia are the best-known and most common hematological findings detected in SLE patients which are included in the classification criteria for SLE.&nbsp; Autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) refers to bone marrow (BM) fibrosis (myelofibrosis) that develops in an autoimmune setting. Myelofibrosis is not among the SLE classification criteria and it is also not well-known. Current reports in the literature on SLE-associated AIMF are mostly restricted to case reports or reviews of such case reports. The occurrence of BM fibrosis in SLE patients has been explored merely in few studies which concluded that myelofibrosis is a rare symptom of SLE. Herein, we propose the hypothesis that SLE-associated AIMF is not rare and, on the contrary, it can indeed be more frequent than what is known or expected.</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) AUTOIMMUNE MYELOFIBROSIS ASSOCIATED WITH LUPUS: UNUSUAL OR UNDETECTED? 2021-07-04T13:03:33+03:00 Misra Durga Prasanna <p>AUTOIMMUNE MYELOFIBROSIS ASSOCIATED WITH LUPUS: UNUSUAL OR UNDETECTED?</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL THERAPY MAY IMPROVE SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS-ASSOCIATED FECAL INCONTINENCE 2021-07-04T11:31:08+03:00 Neslihan Gokcen <p>Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is observed in up to 90% of patients. Resolution of some of these gastrointestinal complications is challenging without the support of physical therapy and rehabilitation. One of these complications, SSc-associated fecal incontinence, which can be devastating for those affected, is seen in up to 39%. Studies focusing on fecal incontinence and its treatment are scarce. The hypothesis presented herein suggests that pelvic floor muscle exercise, biofeedback therapy, and neuromodulation methods might be effective and safe treatment strategies for patients affected by this debilitating complication.</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) HOME-BASED PALLIATIVE CARE VIA SMARTPHONE APPLICATIONS DURING THE PANDEMIC 2021-07-04T11:31:21+03:00 Irfan Karahan Gozde Sengul Aycicek <p>HOME-BASED PALLIATIVE CARE VIA SMARTPHONE APPLICATIONS DURING THE PANDEMIC</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) BLACK AND WHITE; GREEN, GOLD AND PLATINUM: THE COLOURS OF PUBLISHING! 2021-07-08T10:22:51+03:00 Sakir Ahmed <p>BLACK AND WHITE; GREEN, GOLD AND PLATINUM: THE COLOURS OF PUBLISHING!</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR 2021-07-04T11:32:00+03:00 Sakir Ahmed <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) IS VITAMIN D CAPABLE OF HELPING US RECOVER FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC? 2021-07-04T11:32:12+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>IS VITAMIN D CAPABLE OF HELPING US RECOVER FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC?</p> 2021-07-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) HYPOTHESES AND ETHICS IN THE TIME OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-07-04T12:21:34+03:00 Marlen Yessirkepov Bekaidar Nurmashev Armen Yuri Gasparyan <p>HYPOTHESES AND ETHICS IN THE TIME OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) OPEN ACCESS, RESEARCH COMMUNITIES, AND A DEFENSE AGAINST PREDATORY JOURNALS 2021-07-04T12:23:05+03:00 Jeffrey Beall <p>In this opinion article, the author describes his experiences of naming, listing, and analyzing predatory journals. The gold open-access model has led to the creation of many predatory journals that exist only to exploit researchers. Medical research is the most valuable research for humans, so we must guard against the publishing of medical research in predatory journals. Community-based journals that combine a geographical and a disciplinary focus may be seen as a defense against the pathological nature of predatory publishers.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) DISCLOSURE OF POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN BIOMEDICAL PUBLICATIONS IN VIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF MEDICAL JOURNAL EDITORS RECOMMENDATIONS 2021-07-04T12:23:44+03:00 Takako Kojima <p>As potential conflicts of interest (COI) are common in biomedical research, handling related issues and managing disclosures is increasingly important. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) revised its guidance on COI in 2019 and introduced the latest version of the COI Disclosure Form in 2021. These documents provide guidance regarding COI policy for ICMJE member and non-member journals. The 2019 revision overviews the main changes in the ICMJE policy. The ICMJE prioritizes appropriate COI disclosures by authors and all others involved in scholarly publishing. Increasing the global awareness of the COI updated policies among all stakeholders is essential for strengthening ethical standing of journals.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) BIOMEDICAL RESEARCHERS CONFRONTING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-07-04T12:24:40+03:00 Srećko Gajović <p>The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global challenge to be confronted by the biomedical community. This article aimed to explore how knowledgeable and competent researchers may contribute to fighting the pandemic, and to discuss the ethics and impact of this endeavor. Many medical researchers and in particular clinical practitioners are engaged in collecting new evidence and creating new knowledge by undertaking pandemic-related research. This research is frequently unplanned, and subsequently numerous obstacles to starting new but necessary studies must be overcome. To contribute research evidence in hard times represents a highly ethical move. Moreover, these new studies need ethical approvals, financial resources, and institutional frameworks. Another pandemic-related challenge is how to generate expert opinions during the period when solid evidence is missing. Unlike research studies providing necessary scientific evidence, expert opinions do not need ethical approvals or disclosures of competing interests. The apparent contrast of evidence-based versus opinion-based decision-making during the pandemic reconfirms that quality research studies have no alternatives at all times.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) INFECTION-ACQUIRED VERSUS VACCINE-INDUCED IMMUNITY AGAINST COVID-19 2021-07-04T12:25:27+03:00 Tsvetelina Velikova <p>The course of COVID-19 depends on a dynamic interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the host's immune system. Although it is an emerging global health issue, little is known about the specificity, safety, and duration of the immunity elicited by the virus. This hypothesis article explores the benefits of infection-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity against COVID-19, suggesting that the latter outweighs the former. Comparative studies are proposed to explain and reveal all aspects of the immune responses. Although vaccine development relies on studies of naturally acquired immune responses, there are still no comparative analyses of the natural and vaccine immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, there are scarce reports on the characteristics of both types of responses. The scientific facts about the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 affecting the immune system are of great importance for proposed comparative analyses. Various immunological methods can be employed to elucidate infection-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2. The safe vaccination of subjects with and without COVID-19 history may disrupt the virus spreading and end the pandemic.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) ANALYSIS OF YOUTUBE VIDEOS ON PULMONARY REHABILITATION IN COVID-19 2021-07-04T12:26:22+03:00 Burhan Fatih Koçyiğit Ahmet Akyol Ahmet Riza Şahin <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> YouTube is a popular social media platform frequently searched by online users for retrieving health-related information. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have an important place in the COVID-19 treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate COVID-19 pulmonary rehabilitation videos on YouTube.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp; A total of 180 videos tagged with the search terms “COVID-19 pulmonary rehabilitation”, “COVID-19 pulmonary exercise” and “COVID-19 pulmonary physiotherapy” were retrieved. Of these, 63 videos met the study inclusion criteria. The Global Quality Scale (GQS) and the modified DISCERN tool were performed for quality and reliability assessments. Duration of video, upload date, number of views, likes, dislikes, and comments were recorded. Video sources were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the total 63 videos, 22 (34.9%) were classified in the high-quality group, 19 (30.2%) intermediate quality group, and 22 (34.9%) low quality group. The main sources of the high-quality videos were universities and physicians. Others, patients, independent users and health related websites produced high rates of low-quality videos. No significant difference was detected in views, likes, dislikes, and comments per day between the quality groups (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Numbers of high, intermediate and low-quality videos were very close to each other. It is necessary to consider the video sources in order to find videos that contains accurate information. Video parameters other than sources should not be considered as quality indicators.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER AND BEHÇET’S DISEASE 2021-07-04T12:27:12+03:00 Ummusen Kaya Akca Ezgi Deniz Batu <p>Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the most common monogenic autoinflammatory disease, mainly affecting populations originating from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Behçet’s Disease (BD) is grouped in polygenic autoinflammatory diseases. It is a systemic vasculitis that affects all types and sizes of blood vessels. The aim of this article is to shed light on similarities and differences between FMF and BD. BD is frequently reported along the ancient Silk Road, extending from the Far East to the Mediterranean basin. Several studies have searched for the association between FMF and BD. FMF is caused by mutations of the MEditerranean FeVer (MEFV) gene while an increased frequency of MEFV mutations is reported in BD patients. Although BD and FMF share some epidemiological and pathophysiological features, there are distinct clinical characteristics of these nosological entities. Mucocutaneous manifestations, especially recurrent oral ulcers, are the most common symptom in BD patients whereas fever accompanied by serosal inflammation is the main clinical presentation in FMF patients.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) SPERMIDINE MAINTAINS TELOMERE LENGTH AND DELAYS AGING 2021-07-04T12:27:53+03:00 Priyanka Sharma Rishi Kumar Jaiswal <p>Spermidine, a natural polyamine, has been noticed for its anti-aging properties. Supplementation of this drug prolongs lifespan and diminishes the incidence of age-related pathology. In the human population, spermidine levels decrease as aging progresses, and a potential link between diminished endogenous spermidine levels and age-related declination has been studied. At the cellular level, autophagy is the prime mode of action of spermidine known to decline with the progress of aging, similarly contributing to the accretion of impaired macromolecules and organelles through aging. Epidemiological statistics support the concept, suggesting that elevated uptake of polyamine delays aging. Here, we overview the effect of autophagy on cellular processes and age-associated diseases, emphasizing the importance of these events to the hallmarks of aging.</p> <p>There are numerous factors like shortening telomere, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and impaired intracellular calcium signaling, which are influenced by the aging process. We hypothesize that spermidine supplements in the diet increase the telomere length. The proposed hypothesis also brings to light the differentially regulated genes involved in telomere maintenance and aging after spermidine treatment. Knowing the role of spermidine in telomere maintenance would help us understand the molecular mechanism of spermidine's effect on aging.</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) RESEARCH DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE USE OF CLOUD-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS 2021-07-04T12:28:25+03:00 Reza Piri Amalie Horstmann Nøddeskou-Fink Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen <p>RESEARCH DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE USE OF CLOUD-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR 2021-04-02T21:57:19+03:00 Durga Prasanna Misra <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER AND EDITOR</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) A BETTER FUTURE WOULD BE POSSIBLE THROUGH VACCINATION WORLDWIDE 2021-07-04T12:29:55+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>A BETTER FUTURE WOULD BE POSSIBLE THROUGH VACCINATION WORLDWIDE</p> 2021-04-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) EMERGING ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES 2021-07-04T12:07:29+03:00 Marlen Yessirkepov Olena Zimba Armen Yuri Gasparyan <p>Scholarly activities are increasingly dependent on a wide variety of online tools and platforms. Processing health information on such platforms may enrich research studies and solve some healthcare issues. Health information analyses and online surveys are frequently conducted to test old hypothesis and generate new ones. These studies require thorough understanding of the subject and skilful use of online platforms, including social media. Social media platforms are increasingly employed for retrieving and disseminating research data. Scholarly activities on Twitter and other globally popular social media are now recommended for research, education, and clinical practice. Aggregated social media information and related altmetric data have emerged as reflections of the immediacy effects of online sharing and commenting and as tools to complement citation analyses. Researchers and research managers may use altmetrics to plan their studies and introduce changes to the education process. Securing uninterrupted access to Internet and available online tools may facilitate quality research and other scholarly activities.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED 2021-07-04T12:10:26+03:00 Edward Barroga <p>ONLINE TOOLS AND PLATFORMS FOR SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE CONTINUOUSLY DEVELOPED</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) REGISTERING AND REPORTING SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS 2021-07-04T12:09:11+03:00 Pallavi Patro Durga Prasanna Misra <p>Systematic reviews are considered as the highest rung in the ladder of evidence-based medicine. They are bound by a pre-defined structure and requirement for extensive literature searches, when compared with the more liberal format of narrative reviews. Systematic review protocols should ideally be pre-registered to avoid duplication or redundancy. After defining clear review question(s), thorough literature searches form the basis of systematic reviews. Presentation of results should be qualitative or quantitative (meta-analysis) if the data is homogenous enough to permit pooling across multiple studies. Quality of individual studies by Cochrane risk of bias 2 tool for interventional studies and other suitable scales for observational studies, as well as appropriate assessment of publication bias are recommended. Certainty of outcomes should be assessed by the GRADE profiler. Finally, systematic reviews should conclude with recommendations for future research, based on their findings.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) VACCINATION WITH MMR MAY REDUCE DISEASE SEVERITY IN COVID-19 PATIENTS 2021-07-04T12:11:27+03:00 Johannes J. Rasker Suzanne P. Linn-Rasker <p>We hypothesise that MMR vaccination is possibly a safe, cheap, effective and readily available method to reduce the severity of COVID-19 disease course in health care workers, elderly patients and other people at risk. The evidence is based on relevant literature.&nbsp; Suggestions for further studies are given.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF BALNEOTHERAPY WITH POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CENTRAL ASIAN SPAS AND SANATORIUMS 2021-07-04T12:12:54+03:00 Sinan Kardeş Mine Karagülle <p>Spa therapy includes all modalities/ treatments based on evidence that are administered in spas or sanatoriums. Balneotherapy, the immersion in mineral water, is the main balneological modality in spa therapy programs. Clinical trials performed in Europe, Turkey, and Israel have shown clinical benefits of spa therapy/ balneotherapy in several diseases mainly pertaining to rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and dermatological diseases as well. However, mechanisms by which balneotherapy may improve the clinical symptoms of patients have been less evaluated/ documented in the literature. Although the literature on mechanisms of action of balneotherapy has still been evolving and accumulating, some evidence from preliminary studies paves the way for generating a hypothesis that balneotherapy has an influence on physiological mechanisms, immune system, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Extrapolation of the evidence-based clinical practice and scientific experience of Europe, Turkey, and Israel to Central Asian spas and sanatoriums is although possible; future studies investigating clinical efficacy, safety profile, and possible mechanisms of action of balneotherapy of regional spas are needed to better understand the role of balneotherapy and whether it has any local differences.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) THE PEER REVIEW PROCESS IN ASIA 2021-07-04T12:13:38+03:00 Sakir Ahmed Benzeeta Pinto <p>Peer reviewers are the custodians of sciences and scientific publishing. Previously regarded as a purely altruistic work, with the advent of Publons and Peer Review Week initiatives, reviewers can now get scholarly credits for their accomplishments. The number of skilled peer reviewers is limited. The sheer volume of published literature in today’s world calls for active involvement of a large corpus of reviewers. Asia has a growing workforce of biomedical researchers and scientific authors who are inadequately exposed to the global research reporting and English writing standards. Several global initiatives are underway to groom the next generation of peer reviewers and credit them for their efforts. These need to be expanded and made more accessible to scholars in Asia. Ultimately, this untapped potential may provide quality services to international peer-reviewed journals and create informed researchers and skilled authors.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) THE QUEST FOR INDEXING A JOURNAL 2021-07-04T12:15:42+03:00 Farrokh Habibzadeh <p>Hearing about the selection of one’s journal by a reputable indexing system pleases every editor. Journals with an international editorial members selected from prolific researchers have a higher chance of being selected by a prestigious indexing system. Geographic distribution of authors’ affiliations is another important factor. Considering a minimum of internationally acceptable editorial standards would also influence the decision of the indexing systems to select a journal—publishing few quality articles is much better than publishing a bunch of poorly designed badly reported ones. The key to success is having a group of dedicated staff with good communication skills.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) CORRECTING LANGUAGE MISTAKES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ARTICLES 2021-07-04T12:17:14+03:00 Edward Barroga Glafera Janet Matanguihan <p>Scientific authors must write simply and authentically. They should use clear and focused language when drafting qualitative research reports to allow for a deeper understanding of the experiences and concepts extracted. The authors must strive to correctly use subject-verb, matching, and comparing constructions. They must concisely structure the objectives, methods, and discussion. Their manuscript should have a logical flow to avoid rejection due to any ambiguous meaning.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION IN CENTRAL ASIA 2021-07-04T12:19:52+03:00 Prithvi Sanjeevkumar Gaur Latika Gupta <p>Social Media Platforms (SMPs) have emerged as the new frontiers for academic engagement, more so during the pandemic. Cultural barriers, close censorship, and language restrictions may limit the participation of Central Asian scholars in the global scientific communication. This article explores the patterns of Social Media (SoMe) use in Central Asia and outlines probable deterrents of academic engagement in the region. Some suggestions are formulated to offer digital and socio-cultural solutions aimed to improve Central Asian scholars’ activities on SoMe platforms and bridge the divide for fruitful academic partnerships.</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER 2021-01-27T13:38:51+02:00 Latika Gupta <p>MY LIFE AS A RESEARCHER</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS TO GENERATE A GREAT HYPOTHESIS! 2021-07-04T12:20:39+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS TO GENERATE A GREAT HYPOTHESIS!</p> 2021-01-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) FROM TESTABLE HYPOTHESES TO ETHICAL PAPERS AND IMPROVED HEALTH SERVICE 2021-07-04T11:46:33+03:00 Marlen Yessirkepov Armen Yuri Gasparyan <p>Publishing an informative, useful, and attractive journal has been a difficult task throughout the history of scientific communications. Print publishing has had its own hardships that kept editors and publishers busy with time-consuming technological processes, requiring specific skills and abundant financial investments. With the advent of digital media and Open Access, scholarly activities and knowledge transfer have accelerated and facilitated globally affordable online publishing practices.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) GENERATING WORKING HYPOTHESES FOR ORIGINAL RESEARCH STUDIES 2021-07-04T11:48:34+03:00 Durga Prasanna Misra Vikas Agarwal <p>A hypothesis is a statement of the expected outcome of a research study, generally based on analysis of prior published knowledge, or with reference to the previous work of the investigators. The hypothesis forms the foundation of a research proposal. A study based, and planned, on a sound hypothesis may have a greater likelihood of meaningfully contributing to science. After the generation of a hypothesis, it is equally important to appropriately design and adequately power a study (by ensuring a sufficient sample size) in order to test the hypothesis. Adhering to principles discussed forthwith shall help young researchers to generate and test their own hypotheses, and these are best learnt with experience.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) KAWASAKI DISEASE IN KAZAKHSTAN: AN UNMET CLINICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE? 2021-07-04T11:51:42+03:00 Dimitri Poddighe Bakhtiyar Azhken <p>Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis targeting medium-sized and small arteries. It manifests in young children. If not appropriately treated, KD leads to the development of coronary artery aneurysms inabout 20% of patients. No local evidence-based clinical and epidemiological data on KD are currently available in Kazakhstan. The awareness of KD among physicians is inadequate, resulting in underdiagnosis of the disease in the country. Given the high priority of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Central Asian countries, clinical and epidemiological studies on KD along with measures for early diagnosis and management of the patients with cardiovascular affections are warranted.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 SOCIAL MEDIA FOR MEDICAL JOURNALS 2021-07-04T11:54:29+03:00 Sakir Ahmed Latika Gupta <p>Social networks are now an integrated part of life in most digitally connected societies. Bringing scientific papers of interest to a defined audience using the appropriate channel might substantially contribute to the impact of a scientific discovery. Various media and metrics have come to the fore in strategizing dissemination of scientific information. This opinion piece offers insights from the social-media experience of digital editors of peer-reviewed journals from non-Anglophone countries.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 COMPARING VITAMIN D STATUS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND NORTHERN EUROPE 2021-07-04T11:55:39+03:00 William B. Grant <p>Over the past two decades, the understanding of the roles of vitamin D has expanded to include many nonskeletal effects such as reduced risk of acute respiratory tract infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, neurological diseases, and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The role of vitamin D for optimal health is well known in Western developed countries but less so in Central Asian countries. This narrative review compares the status of vitamin D between Central Asian countries and Northern European countries. The analysis also summarizes the evidence for the beneficial effects of vitamin D and recommendations for Central Asian countries.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PATHOGENESIS OF FIBROMYALGIA IN PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: SCOPING REVIEW FOR HYPOTHESIS GENERATION 2021-07-04T11:56:51+03:00 Sakir Ahmed Able Lawrence <p>Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) prevalence is much higher in patients with other rheumatic diseases than in the general population. This leads to increase in the perceived disease activity scores and prevents patients from reaching remission. Elucidating the pathogenesis of such “secondary” FM can help alleviate some unmet needs in these diseases.</p> <p>Methods: MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for a scoping review for hypothesis generation regarding the genesis of secondary FM.</p> <p>Results: FM has been postulated to be due to cytokine dysfunction, neurogenic neuroinflammation, stress, including social defeat, sleep disturbances, sympathetic overactivity, and small fibre neuropathy. These factors increase in most autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Further the evidence for the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of FM is seems strong. Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction are also associated with FM, but it is difficult to distinguish between cause and effect.</p> <p>Conclusion: FM is the common phenotype arising from the amalgamation of various aetiologies. Recruitment or amplification of the above 6 factors by various rheumatic diseases may thus lead precipitation of secondary FM in susceptible individuals.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A HYPOTHETICAL ROLE FOR PLAGUE IN THE SELECTION OF MEFV MUTATION CARRIERS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA 2021-07-04T11:58:04+03:00 Ezgi Deniz Batu <p>Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding Pyrin. MEFV mutations are frequent in the Mediterranean region. Increased resistance to an infection endemic to this area could have caused a selective advantage for individuals with MEFV mutations. Recent studies have shown that Pyrin is a part of host defense against microorganisms and it gets activated after sensing Rho GTPase inactivation by bacteria such as Clostridium difficile or Yersinia pestis. However, Yersinia species have another effector molecule, YopM which inhibits Pyrin in addition to RhoA modifiers YopE and YopT. Continuously overactive Pyrin in individuals with MEFV mutations could be a good host defense against Yersinia infections. Y. pestis causes plague, which led to a devastating pandemic in the Mediterranean basin. Thus, plague could be the infection which caused a selective biologic advantage for MEFV mutation carriers in this area.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 INNOVATIVE IDEAS IN REGIONAL RESEARCH: A MESSAGE FROM PAKISTANI JOURNAL EDITORS 2021-07-04T11:59:38+03:00 Aamir Raoof Memon Fatema Jawad <p>INNOVATIVE IDEAS IN REGIONAL RESEARCH: A MESSAGE FROM PAKISTANI JOURNAL EDITORS</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ENHANCING CLEAR EXPRESSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, AND OBJECTIVES THROUGH EFFECTIVE USE OF SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 2021-07-04T12:01:02+03:00 Edward Barroga <p>ENHANCING CLEAR EXPRESSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES, AND OBJECTIVES THROUGH EFFECTIVE USE OF SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 LAUNCHING A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL 2021-07-04T12:03:02+03:00 Ilke Coskun Benlidayi <p>LAUNCHING A SGHOLARLY JOURNAL</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 AUTHORSHIP MALPRACTICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 2021-07-04T12:04:15+03:00 Horacio Rivera <p>Although the variety of research malpractices in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is similar to those documented in developed nations, authorship misuse and related issues appear to be more prevalent in the former. This article focuses on some authorship-related topics in LMIC, namely authorship disputes, excessive co-authorship and monetary incentives, authorship issues in student-mentor relationships, and authorship patterns in North-South collaborations. Universities and official bodies in LMIC must supervise the integrity of the whole research process, provide instructions on responsible research and authorship, set up the required postgraduate training programs, foster good role models in authorship, and designate an ombudsperson to advice and respond to complaints of researchers, especially students and junior faculty. Lastly, a recent framework that combines descriptive and normative elements and then uses proper metaphors to achieve an ethical definition of authorship useful in international settings is highlighted.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020